Why do people lose weight dramatically in type 1 diabetes?

Most people with type 2 diabetes have a decrease in body weight without the use of special training or diet.

Rapid weight loss is an alarm and one of the most common signs of this disease.

The most common root cause, in which there is a decrease in the weight indicators of a person, is stress, but along with it, the presence of diabetes mellitus is no less significant factor. So why lose weight with diabetes?

The root causes of weight loss in diabetes

This type of human hormone is responsible for supplying the body with the necessary number of glucose molecules and provides the person with energy resources.

If the amount of insulin produced by the body is not enough, then the concentration of glucose molecules in the blood rapidly increases, but the tissues and organs do not receive this glucose.

Healthy people, whose blood sugar levels are normal, to lose weight without special diets and regular training is not so easy.

If a person does not pay attention to his diet and sport, but at the same time begins to lose weight quickly, then this should be a serious reason for going to a doctor. Since a sharp and rapid weight loss is one of the symptoms of many diseases, including diabetes.

And since the main factor provoking the development of this ailment is overweight, the question of why people lose weight with diabetes worries many people.

The main reason for dramatic weight loss

Diabetes in patients is manifested by many pathological symptoms, in particular, the development of severe thirst, increased urge to urinate, disorders of the general condition, the appearance of dry skin and paresthesia, that is, tingling or burning in the limbs. In addition, the disease affects the weight of a person who starts to lose weight heavily and seemingly and without reason.

Sometimes this weight loss can be up to 20 kg per month without physical exertion and changes in diet. Why do people with diabetes lose weight? Sharp weight loss is more common in patients who suffer from insulin-dependent type of diabetes.

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder when the body does not use energy properly. One of the symptoms of diabetes is sudden and inexplicably sharp weight loss.

Excessive hunger and thirst are two other signs, and patients with uncured diabetes can lose weight even as they eat and drink more than usual. There are several reasons why people with diabetes lose weight, but to better understand why weight loss occurs, you need to learn how diabetes affects the body.

Digestion and energy production

Under normal circumstances, your body turns food into sugar during the digestive process. Sugar enters the bloodstream and the pancreas releases a hormone known as insulin. Insulin helps all cells in the body take sugar from the blood and convert it into energy that cells use as fuel.

Types of diabetes

There are two types of diabetes mellitus - type 1 and type 2. With type 1 diabetes, the body either does not produce insulin, or produces insufficient quantities of it, and the cells do not receive a chemical signal to absorb sugar from the blood.

With type 2 diabetes, the body produces insulin, but the cells do not respond to chemical signals, or they react to them incorrectly. In both cases, the sugar remains in the blood, where the body is not able to use it for energy.

Consequences of diabetes

When cells are unable to use sugar and energy, they send a signal to the brain that they need more fuel. The brain then triggers a hunger reaction, prompting you to eat, and therefore you suffer from excessive hunger, which often occurs in diabetes.

However, the more you eat, the more sugar gets into the blood and not into the cells. Your kidneys will have to work overtime to clear sugar from the blood through urine, and for this they need to use a lot of water, which means excessive thirst.

Diabetes and weight loss

In addition to triggering a response to hunger, the brain also destroys muscle tissue and fat in an effort to provide energy to the cells. It is this process that causes sudden weight loss associated with diabetes.

If the condition continues to be untreated, the body can infect ketoacidosis. When ketoacidosis, the body produces chemicals - ketones, due to too fast breakdown of fats.

Ketones enter the bloodstream and make the blood acidic, which can cause organ damage and even death.

What are the possible causes of weight loss?

Weight loss in diabetes due to the following reasons:

  • malnutrition,
  • violation of the assimilation of food
  • active breakdown of proteins, fats and carbohydrates
  • large energy costs.

A characteristic feature of diabetes is weight loss along with good and abundant nutrition. Stressful situations and psychological problems can aggravate the situation.

Weight loss is a characteristic symptom of type 1 diabetes, in which the body does not produce insulin. This is a consequence of an autoimmune reaction in which pancreatic cells are perceived as foreign.

Be careful

According to the WHO, 2 million people die from diabetes and the complications caused by it every year. In the absence of qualified support of the body, diabetes leads to various kinds of complications, gradually destroying the human body.

Of the complications most commonly encountered are diabetic gangrene, nephropathy, retinopathy, trophic ulcers, hypoglycemia, ketoacidosis. Diabetes can also lead to the development of cancer. In almost all cases, the diabetic either dies, struggling with a painful disease, or turns into a real disabled person.

What do people with diabetes? The Endocrinological Research Center of the RAMS has succeeded

Causes of losing weight

In type 1 diabetes mellitus, there is a lack of insulin in the body: the immune system attacks the pancreatic beta cells responsible for its production. Changing hormonal levels leads to disruption of the process of natural nutrition of cells.

The role of the main source of energy in the human body is glucose. It is absorbed into the blood after the breakdown of products in the gastrointestinal tract, and then is carried by the bloodstream to all tissues and cells. Insulin in this chain plays the role of the key that gives glucose access to the cells.

With a lack of this hormone, two problems arise:

  1. Cells have nowhere to take energy, and they begin to look for its new source. They become muscle and fat tissue, and the body spends reluctant fat the body - the first to suffer muscles. Because of this, there is weight loss in type 1 diabetes.
  2. Blood glucose levels begin to rise. Without insulin, it cannot penetrate to the cells, and is not consumed. The body is trying to cope with the excess, bringing it out with urine. Due to frequent urination, along with glucose, moisture also leaves the body. Dehydration develops, which also contributes to weight loss.

Slimming in diabetes type 1 cause and indirect causes. Due to the onset of the disease, the patient's appetite decreases, abdominal pains appear, and efficiency decreases. In such a state, it begins to actually consume less food, which leads to even greater depletion.

What is dangerous drastic weight loss

Sudden weight loss is a big stress for the body. It has the following consequences:

  1. increased blood toxicity
  2. digestive disorders,
  3. excessive load on the liver
  4. drop in performance.

If you do not begin to treat the disease in time, its consequences are aggravated. Complications can be both acute (loss of consciousness, coma), so chronic (damage to the retina, kidney, development of cardiovascular, nervous and dermatological diseases).

How to regain weight

In diabetes mellitus of the first type, the patient is put on a special diet. Meals should be fractional and frequent - at least 5-6 times a day. Instead of sugar, honey and synthetic sweeteners should be used.

Useful products that increase the production of insulin - goat's milk, garlic, Brussels sprouts, linseed oil and wheat germ. They can be used in any form, independently or as part of complex dishes.

The basis of the diet should be foods with a low glycemic index - low-fat natural yogurt, bananas, whole-grain cereals, legumes. Do not forget about the sources of vitamins and minerals: as part of the diet must be tomatoes, cucumbers, walnuts, dried apricots, figs. Alcohol should be limited, and it is better to exclude it altogether.

Important uniform carbohydrate load during the day. The total distribution of nutrients should be as follows: 15% - proteins, 25% - fats, 60% - carbohydrates. During pregnancy, ketoacidosis and in old age, the ratio is adjusted.

It is impossible to return the previous weight with the help of one food in case of diabetes mellitus - special therapy is needed. The endocrinologist prescribes injections of insulin, and if necessary, medications based on metformin (Glucophage, Siofor). Dosage and frequency of administration is calculated individually for each patient. Over time, the patient learns to identify them independently.

The sensitivity of cells to insulin increases with physical activity, so regular training is needed. Simple exercises will strengthen muscles, help to cope with chronic fatigue and weakness. Daily walks in the fresh air are useful.

Type 1 diabetes requires regular monitoring of sugar levels. The best option is to start a diary in which you can record the daily readings of the meter. It is convenient to make notes, notebooks, notebooks, or use specialized online services.

Weight loss in secondary diabetes

Despite the fact that the disease of diabetes often provokes obesity, with the further development of the pathological condition, the patient tends not to gain weight, but on the contrary - to lose it. In secondary diabetes, the body is not sensitive to insulin produced by the pancreas. The volume of insulin in the blood at the same time, is at a level close to normal or sometimes increases. As a result, the volume of sugar molecules in the blood increases, new deposits of adipose tissue are formed. Due to the newly formed fat there is an increase in body mass. And so in a circle.

Excess subcutaneous fat provokes a worsening of insulin resistance, and excessive production of insulin, during the absence of its normal use, entails an even greater increase in weight. Rapid weight loss in diabetes can provoke the development of side diseases.

A healthy person, under normal circumstances, in a month is able to both gain and lose up to five kilograms of weight. The set can provoke uncontrolled food intake on holidays or vacation days, decrease in physical activity, weight reduction - emotional stress or the use of dietary food. While spontaneous weight loss may indicate, among other things, the progression of diabetes.

Watch the video: The Health Guru Who Eats 5,000 Calories in One Meal & Says He's Healthy (February 2020).