Effective diabetes control is achieved by combining three interrelated elements: adequate insulin therapy, regular exercise and proper nutrition. The menu for diabetics should be diverse, provide all the needs of the body and not create a feeling of inferiority in patients, bring a sense of satisfaction.
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Despite the fact that diabetes is associated with impaired carbohydrate metabolism, carbohydrates will dominate in the diet - they should account for 65% of the diet.
Fats are recommended for use in a limited amount, their mass fraction should be up to 15%. In this case, it is advisable to focus on vegetable fats, avoid refractory animal fats. Lipids themselves do not increase glycemia, but their excessive intake with food can accelerate the development of atherosclerotic plaques in the vessels, provoke the progression of macroangiopathies and lead to the development of arterial hypertension.
The diet for diabetes mellitus of the first type should be high-protein, with a protein content of up to 20% in the daily amount of food. Both plant and animal proteins that contain essential amino acids for the body are appropriate.
Among the general principles of nutrition for type 1 diabetes, it is impossible not to mention the universal system of bread units (XE). 1 XE equals approximately 12 g of carbohydrates, or 1 slice of white bread. Using special tables or a calculation method, you can determine how much XE is contained in each product.
This system is necessary to select a dose of insulin before a planned meal. If the dish or carbohydrate product is less than 5%, then it is believed that it will not affect glycemia and is not taken into account when calculating XE.
The amount of food allowed for consumption depends on physical activity and body weight.
For patients with normal body weight who are engaged in heavy labor, the use of 25 XE is shown per day, moderate to moderate labor - 17-22 XE, intellectual labor with minimal physical activity - 12-15 XE. With a deficit of body weight, an increase in the calorie content of food and the amount of carbohydrates up to 25-30 XE is shown.
The total amount of XE should be divided into 5 meals to maintain stable glycemia throughout the day. An approximate distribution is as follows:
- breakfast - 4-5 XE,
- lunch - 1-2 XE,
- lunch - 6-7 XE,
- afternoon tea - 2-3 XE,
- dinner - 5 HE.
In order not to experience hunger at night, before going to bed, it is allowed to drink an additional glass of low-fat kefir.
It is not always possible to carry out calculations and look at tables. In order to roughly sort out what you can eat with type 1 diabetes, while visiting, outdoors or at the festive table, you just need to remember the palm rule: you can put a handful of vegetable salad (two folded palms) in a plate for eating, a piece of meat the size of palm without fingers, cereals, pasta or baked potatoes - a volume equal to a fist. Observing this rule, it is easy to fill the plate and not remain hungry without harm to health.
Allowed foods for type 1 diabetes can be divided into 2 groups: the first includes mainly vegetables rich in fiber, which can be eaten without restrictions, since they do not affect the level of glycemia, the second includes foods that you need to eat, but in small quantities moderately.
It is advisable, following a diet for type 1 diabetes, make a table with the products and place it in plain sight, for example, in the refrigerator. For clarity, it is convenient to use the colors of the traffic light. You can add cucumbers, tomatoes, dill, parsley, lettuce, radishes, zucchini, peppers, eggplants, turnips, asparagus beans, cabbage (any), mushrooms, water, rosehip broth, tea, and coffee without sugar into the green zone.
Innovation in diabetes - just drink every day.
The yellow zone should be reserved for pasta, cereals, potatoes, beets, carrots, vegetable oils, legumes, bran bread, low-fat meat, fish, eggs, dairy products of less than 4% fat, hard cheeses, some fruits (the most useful are green apples, avocados, kiwi), fruit drinks and fruit drinks without sugar.
In order for the diet to be effective, prohibited foods should be excluded.
The red zone of absolute prohibition includes:
- sweet, especially carbonated drinks,
- honey, ice cream, jam, cakes and other sweets, including fructose,
- pork, lamb, fat, bacon, offal,
- sausages and canned food,
- mayonnaise and any purchased sauces,
- fatty dairy products,
- white bread, sweet, pastry,
- sweet fruits - bananas, grapes, melons, mangoes, dates, figs.
These products should leave the usual diet, appear only as
exceptions or for an urgent increase in blood sugar with threatening hypoglycemia.
Menu for the week
Recipes for diabetics of type 1 can be invented independently, using healthy products that are allowed to be consumed, or you can take ready-made adapted ones.
To follow a diet was not so difficult, the menu for type 1 diabetes should be as close as possible to the diet of an ordinary healthy person.
An approximate weekly menu for diabetics can be compiled as follows:
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- breakfast: omelet from 1-2 eggs, toast from bran bread and butter, 1 cucumber, decoction of wild rose hips, orange.
- Lunch: natural unsweetened yogurt, cracker.
- lunch: lean borsch, barley porridge, steamed chicken, a slice of black bread, tea.
- afternoon snack: a salad of grated apple and carrots seasoned with 1 tablespoon of cream.
- dinner: stewed zucchini, boiled veal, rye bread, cottage cheese casserole, herbal tea.
- breakfast: buckwheat with milk, a slice of hard cheese, rye bread toast, rosehip broth.
- lunch: 1 large baked apples.
- lunch: fish soup without potatoes, wheat porridge, steamed meat souffle, cucumber, unsweetened compote.
- afternoon snack: low-fat kefir.
- dinner: cabbage rolls, bran bread, cheesecake, tea.
- breakfast: durum wheat pasta, steamed veal cutlet, fresh cabbage and celery salad with olive oil, apple juice without sugar.
- lunch: 1 kiwi, 2 biscuit cookies.
- lunch: meatball soup, zucchini caviar, baked chicken fillet, a slice of bread, coffee without sugar with milk.
- afternoon snack: soft-boiled egg, 1 toast.
- dinner: unsweetened cottage cheese casserole, baked pumpkin, rosehip decoction without sugar.
- breakfast: millet porridge on water, steamed hake fillet, boiled beet salad, slice of bread, sugar-free chicory drink.
- lunch: orange, cracker.
- lunch: mushroom soup, buckwheat porridge, beef goulash, unsweetened fruit drinks.
- afternoon snack: cottage cheese with a low percentage of fat content.
- dinner: zucchini stuffed with meat, 2 slices of bread, a salad of cucumbers, celery stalks and tomatoes with vegetable oil, black tea.
- breakfast: stewed cabbage, chicken meatballs, berry fruit drinks without sugar, cottage cheese casserole without semolina.
- lunch: natural unsweetened yogurt, apple.
- lunch: beef stroganoff on low-fat sour cream, wheat porridge, salad with cabbage, carrots and fresh herbs, tea without sugar.
- afternoon snack: unsweetened compote, 2 biscuit cookies.
- dinner: baked potato, fishcake, stewed eggplant, a slice of bread, tea.
- breakfast: steamed vegetables, salmon steak, bran bread toast, coffee without sugar.
- lunch: fruit salad from apple, kiwi and avocado.
- lunch: cabbage cabbage, durum wheat pasta with ground beef, tea without sugar.
- afternoon snack: homemade curdled milk from nonfat milk.
- dinner: rabbit stew with vegetables, a slice of brown bread, tomato, fruit jelly without sugar.
- breakfast: boiled egg, oatmeal in milk, cracker, coffee without sugar.
- lunch: 1 toast, a slice of cheese.
- lunch: pickle on vegetable broth, stuffed peppers, unsweetened stewed fruit.
- afternoon snack: cottage cheese casserole.
- dinner: stewed cauliflower, medallions from turkey, a salad of fresh cucumbers and cabbage, a slice of bran bread, green tea.
In soups and vegetable dishes, potatoes can be replaced with celery root, diced.
Prevention and recommendations
In addition to proper nutrition, that is, diet therapy, for type 1 diabetes mellitus, regular monitoring of glycemia is a prerequisite for maintaining health. At the stages of insulin dose selection, blood sampling is performed up to 5 times a day. After the establishment of a constant regimen of insulin therapy, control is carried out less frequently, but always daily.
General recommendations include abstinence from drinking alcohol. Since alcohol can provoke the development of a hypoglycemic state, it should be extremely carefully taken in small doses under the control of blood sugar levels.
It is necessary to treat sugar substitutes with caution. Fructose is not a safe product because it negatively affects blood glucose levels. Xylitol and sorbitol have a calorie content, and if used uncontrolled will contribute to weight gain. The most optimal is the limited use of aspartame, cyclamate, saccharin and sucralose. Homemade desserts based on sweeteners are allowed.
Immediately after the diagnosis is made, it is difficult to understand what can be eaten with diabetes. At first, creating a menu for every day, independently calculating the amount of food and insulin, taking into account the recommendations of the doctor, as well as familiarizing yourself with tips on how to eat healthy, and recipes for diabetics with calculated XE, can help.
Over time, eating properly will become familiar and comfortable. And in combination with physical activity, the diet will avoid the development of complications of diabetes and severe concomitant diseases, ensuring an active, healthy life.
Diabetes always leads to fatal complications. Excessive blood sugar is extremely dangerous.
Aronova S.M. gave explanations about the treatment of diabetes. Read completely
Prohibited or restricted products
An extensive list is not only available for authorized products. Forbidden can also please with their variety. But, as mentioned above, sometimes they can be used, especially in those cases when the control over the disease is at the proper level. The most popular foods to avoid are:
- chocolate, especially milk, chocolates,
- lollipops, chewing gum,
- dough products excluding rye bread,
- smoked, spicy, fatty, fried, spicy and salty foods, this also applies to meat with fish,
- any alcohol
- carbonated drinks,
- rice or semolina porridge,
- boiled potatoes, especially young ones,
- jam, ice cream, jam,
- fatty dairy products,
- dried fruits.
With the restriction allowed watermelons, melons, zucchini, carrots. It is best to give preference to vegetables, as well as foods that are rich in fiber. They well satisfy hunger and slightly raise blood sugar.
Patients should receive no more than 1400 kcal daily. This figure is due to the fact that most diabetics have problems with excess weight, which must be reduced. If this problem is not, then you can slightly increase the amount of food consumed. Recipes for cooking often indicate that it is best to use a slow cooker for this purpose, since it does not require the addition of oil or fat.
The best diet is three meals a day, that is, three main meals, with one or two snacks. The main meals are related to short insulin injections.
Breakfast: includes 150 grams of barley with two slices of hard cheese. Bread as desired, tea or coffee should be weak. Sugar is prohibited.
Lunch: consists of 200 grams of a salad of cabbage, cucumbers, tomatoes or any other fresh vegetables. It’s best not to season them, but simply mix them thoroughly and eat in this form. Two steamed chicken breast cutlets are added to the salad, as well as about 200 grams of stewed cabbage. From liquid - borsch without frying, it is important, the broth should not be greasy.
For dinner, a salad of about 150 grams with a slice of chicken breast is also recommended.
Snacks can be made as follows: a glass of cottage cheese or 3 cheesecakes, a second snack - a glass of kefir.
For breakfast, you can eat an omelet consisting of two egg whites and one yolk. To it is added up to 100 grams of boiled veal, one tomato. Bread, tea, coffee as desired.
For lunch, it is very good to eat salad, as this is the largest meal. You need about 200 grams of vegetables, you can add 100 grams of chicken breast to it, or eat it separately. Another dish is pumpkin porridge, it also needs 100 grams.
The first snack consists of grapefruit and a glass of kefir.
For dinner - a serving of stewed cabbage with boiled fish.
The third day
Includes meat stuffed cabbage for breakfast. It is highly undesirable that they had rice. Serving - 200 grams, bread at will.
Lunch includes a salad, approximately 100 grams, a side dish - hard pasta with boiled meat or fish. Instead of tea, you can drink a glass of apple juice cooked at home.
Snack - one orange.
For dinner - casserole from low-fat cottage cheese, it can be up to 300 grams.
If it is convenient to count on the days of the week - Thursday, it will delight you with the following variety. The first meal is oatmeal cooked in water. You can add some fresh permitted fruits. For tea, you can take a couple of pieces of cheese, up to 100 grams.
For lunch - 150-200 grams of pickle, a slice of bread and a slice of stew.
A snack may consist of two to three slices of biscuit cookies.
For dinner, green beans with boiled meat or fish.
The diet on the fifth day includes lazy dumplings for breakfast, about 100 grams. A glass of kefir and a small handful of dried fruits are added to them. They are allowed when an energy supply is required before physical activity.
The second meal is a salad - 200 grams, baked potatoes - up to 100 grams and compote. It is important that the compote is cooked without added sugar.
Snack - fruit drink, also sugar free, about 1 cup, about 100 grams of baked pumpkin.
For dinner you can steam cutlets with salad.
Saturday can please a small piece of slightly salted salmon with an egg. If you remove the yolk from it, then you can eat 2-3 boiled protein. Tea or coffee at will, the main thing is to be sugar free.
For lunch - stuffed cabbage without rice, up to 200 grams, soup ladle without frying, the broth should not be greasy. You can slice rye bread.
Snack consists of two diabetic bread and a glass of kefir.
For dinner, you can eat 100 grams of steamed or boiled chicken, up to 100 grams of fresh peas, and up to 200 grams of stewed eggplant.
On Sunday, buckwheat on water with chicken stew for breakfast. The total amount of food is up to 300 grams.
For lunch - cabbage soup or soup on chicken or vegetable broth.You can add chicken cutlet to them, bread if desired.
Snack consists of 2-3 fresh plums and 100 grams of cottage cheese.
For dinner, a glass of kefir with a few biscuit cookies. You can still eat one small apple.
It should be noted that the portions are relatively approximate. They can expand depending on physical activity, and with regular training, doctors even specifically recommend adding any sweet foods to the diet. But, not every diabetic is actively involved in sports.
With this diet, you can also use all kinds of infusions of medicinal herbs. Rosehip broth is of particular benefit. They practically do not contain calories, if you do not add them honey, sugar, to sweeten them a little. They can be consumed absolutely at any time of the day. The amount of water is also not limited, it is useful even to healthy people.
This layout for the week implies the absence of one of the snacks between breakfast and lunch. This is due to fairly dense meals in the morning. But if there is a need or there is severe hunger, then it is better to satisfy it through vegetable salad, yogurt without additives or fruit.
Features diet table number 9 according to Pevzner
Diet tables according to Pevzner are designed to accelerate the recovery of patients with various pathologies, as well as for the prevention of exacerbations of diseases. With diabetes, table number 9 is used, which is the most popular worldwide. The main principle is to limit salt, sugar and proper heat treatment of products - baking, steaming. This table is forbidden to stew or fry, but not categorically, minor amendments are possible.
The approximate daily layout has this form.
- For breakfast, dairy products with the lowest fat content - cottage cheese, milk or kefir, can be washed down with tea.
- The second breakfast, or, as they say abroad, lunch, includes pearl barley porridge with boiled meat without bread.
- Borsch for lunch must contain fresh cabbage, and its preparation should be on vegetable broth. Fruit jelly and a small amount of boiled meat are added to it.
- Any fruit is allowed for a snack between lunch and dinner, it is best an apple or citrus, but not sweet, like mandarin.
- For dinner, it is recommended to eat fish baked without batter, vegetable salad, best of all from cabbage and cucumbers, it can be seasoned with olive oil.
Sugar is replaced with sweeteners such as stevia. The diet is subject to adjustment, the main thing is to exclude from the menu all prohibited products.
Features of children's nutrition
A rather big problem is the development of diabetes in a child. Doctors in this situation recommend the appointment of a special carbohydrate diet, which can be up to 2/3 of the diet. One of the undesirable consequences of this step is the constant fluctuation of glycemia. They can provoke a significant deterioration in the condition of any patient. Therefore, the best way out of this situation is the use of dietary table No. 9 according to Pevzner.
To make the right menu, you must give preference to such products:
- meat - non-fat varieties, chicken, pork and lamb are excluded,
- vegetables - carrots, cucumbers, tomatoes, any kind of cabbage,
- fruits - apples, peaches, cherries.
It is recommended to completely eliminate sugar in its pure form, as well as in additives to products such as compote, jam. For sweetening, you can replace it with sorbitol or fructose, but it is best to switch to stevia - a natural sweetener that contains virtually no carbohydrates and calories. Bakery products, pastries are also strictly prohibited.
Before starting this diet, the following should be considered.
- Hypoglycemia is possible, so you need to learn how to prevent them.
- Sugar needs to be controlled much more often, up to 7 times a day. This will allow you to prescribe the necessary dose of insulin.
- It is extremely important to protect the baby from stress and try to accustom him to about the same mode of motor and physical activity. This will stabilize insulin therapy, carbohydrate metabolism, as well as teach the baby to the regimen, which will favorably reflect on his health in the future.
Diabetes is not a sentence. And the fact that diabetics eat tasteless also cannot be considered true. If you show imagination, diversify your menu with all the allowed products, then the disease will remind yourself much less often.