Why do some patients with diabetes lose weight dramatically, while others, on the contrary, are rapidly gaining weight and suffering from obesity? It's all about the pathogenesis of different forms of the disease.
As a rule, people with the first type of diabetes, who do not produce insulin, begin to “melt” after the first symptoms of the disease.
Diabetes mellitus in patients is manifested by many pathological symptoms, in particular, the development of severe thirst, increased urge to urinate, impaired general condition, the appearance of dry skin and paresthesias, that is, tingling or burning in the limbs. In addition, the disease affects the weight of a person starting strongly and seemingly for no reason to lose weight.
Sometimes this weight loss can be up to 20 kg per month without physical exertion and changes in diet. Why do people with diabetes lose weight? Sudden weight loss is more common in patients who suffer from an insulin-dependent type of diabetes.
With diabetes get fat or lose weight?
Rapid weight loss in diabetes can cause the development of other serious diseases. Firstly, there is a violation of all metabolic processes, and secondly, the body begins to borrow energy first from muscle tissue, and then from fat stores.
Abrupt weight loss is a very dangerous process that leads to a disruption in the normal functioning of the body, destabilization of enzymatic systems and metabolism.
Weight loss in diabetes is due to the following reasons:
- violation of the assimilation of food,
- active breakdown of proteins, fats and carbohydrates,
- high energy costs.
A characteristic feature of diabetes is weight loss along with good and plentiful nutrition. Stressful situations and psychological problems can exacerbate the situation.
Weight loss is a characteristic sign of type 1 diabetes, in which the body does not produce insulin. This is a consequence of an autoimmune reaction in which pancreatic cells are perceived as foreign.
Factors that lead to obesity in diabetes are associated with a genetic predisposition, lifestyle, and age. According to statistics, eighty-ninety percent of patients with type 2 diabetes are diagnosed with obesity.
Weight gain is observed in people who take insulin. The following pattern is observed: the more you take insulin, the more glucose is absorbed by the cells of the body. It turns out that glucose is not eliminated from the body, but is converted into adipose tissue, which is the cause of weight gain.
Weight gain is necessary for rapid weight loss. If the situation is ignored, the patient may begin to develop dystrophy.
Accordingly, the problem of drastic weight loss in diabetes must be addressed in a timely manner. It is very important to recognize it on time.
If the patient’s weight is dropping rapidly, you should seek help from a qualified professional as soon as possible. Lowering your glucose helps burn muscle tissue. This often leads to complete atrophy of the lower extremities, subcutaneous tissue.
To control this condition, it is necessary to regularly measure sugar levels and weight. Otherwise, exhaustion of the body may occur. In a serious condition, hormonal preparations and various stimulants are prescribed to the patient (since the risk of developing ketoacidosis is quite high).
What medications will help me get better?
Intensive weight loss in diabetes is a sign of the development of its decompensated forms, which are accompanied by pathological changes in the functionality of the internal organs, leading to general exhaustion and a significant deterioration in the well-being of a sick person.
Such changes in the patient’s body indicate that he can no longer control metabolic processes without external assistance, therefore, he needs additional correction.
To normalize weight, diet pills are available. Such drugs have several advantages, but they also have contraindications and side effects. That is why, before starting treatment, consult a doctor and clearly observe the prescribed dosages.
The most popular drug is Siofor. Glucophage delayed-release tablets have a greater effect on the patient, but at the same time they have a higher cost.
Such drugs increase the sensitivity of body cells to insulin, which leads to a decrease in its amount in the blood. They prevent the active accumulation of fat and facilitate the process of normalizing weight.
The active substance of the tablets is metformin. The drug is taken with meals. Siofor reduces glucose. Usually, doctors prescribe a remedy for diabetics in whom the disease has developed against the background of obesity.
Siofor performs two important functions:
- Restores insulin sensitivity.
- Reduces weight.
As can be seen from the reviews, after the start of the use of tablets, craving for sweets decreases. Besides. Siofor is a good protection against attacks of hypoglycemia, which can be life-threatening to the patient.
Even those patients who do not follow a diet, along with Siofor lose weight, though not so fast, but the results will be. Do not forget that the tablets are designed specifically for diabetics. If they begin to take healthy people, this will lead to metabolic disorders.
In the event that a diet carried out by moderate physical activity does not help to gain weight, special preparations are prescribed for patients. Diabeton MB belongs to this group.
Indications for its use - lack of effectiveness of diet therapy, physical type loads, a gradual decrease in body weight. Diabeton MB is prescribed exclusively for adult patients.
The recommended dose is preferably used at breakfast. The initial dosage is 30 mg, it is determined by the doctor depending on the concentration of glucose in the patient's blood.
How to gain weight with type 1 and type 2 diabetes?
If you want to bring weight back to normal, then first of all, change your diet:
- eat more often, but in small portions. Break the usual three meals into smaller ones,
- consumed foods should have high nutritional value. Eat more vegetables, fruits, dairy products, cereals, nuts, lean meats,
- Do not drink liquid immediately before eating. Keep at least a half hour interval,
- as a snack, eat these foods: avocado, dried fruits, cheese, nuts,
- increase the amount of carbohydrates consumed. Here we are talking about complex carbohydrates, and not easily digestible. “Good” carbohydrates provide the body with energy, and there will be no jumps in sugar: whole grain products, legumes, yogurt, milk,
- fats will also help to gain weight. There are polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats, but in no case trans fats. Eat nuts, seeds, avocados. Use olive and rapeseed oil for cooking.
It all depends on the mood of the person, so it is important to set a goal and go to it:
- First, find out what the weight should be in your case. Due to the fact that many people have a vague idea of healthy weight, they tend to the wrong goals. Be sure to calculate your body mass index,
- control your calorie intake. If you want to gain weight, then the food should be high-calorie,
- moderate physical training. Exercise helps build muscle, which will contribute to weight gain. Also, after training, appetite improves.
Do not forget that if you make adjustments to your diet, then control your glucose level. It is not known how this or that change can affect the state of your health. Consult your doctor about what you should do to gain weight.
It is very important that the body receives the required amount of calories. It is not recommended to skip a single meal.
After all, this can lead to the loss of about 500 calories per day. You cannot skip breakfast, as well as lunch, dinner.
In this case, you need to plan every day. In diabetes, you need to eat often - about 6 times a day.
What foods should low-weight diabetics eat?
There are certain tips that help you gain weight in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The menu should include foods with a low glycemic index, then the sugar level will not rise sharply.
It is advisable to coordinate a diet with a doctor. A specialist will help you create a diet without much harm to health.
In case of exhaustion, it is advisable to consume honey, fresh goat milk. These products have healing properties, they perfectly tone the body. When gaining body weight per day, the amount of fat should not exceed 25%. Moreover, their volume should be distributed to all existing meals.
Diabetics that increase body weight can eat side dishes (wheat, oat, buckwheat, as well as rice, pearl barley). As for fresh vegetables, this group includes tomatoes, fresh cucumbers, green beans, and fresh cauliflower.
For a steady and stable weight gain, carbohydrates are recommended. This leads to the desired results. The gain of excess mass due to this will not happen.
The intake of carbohydrates must be carried out in accordance with such rules:
- use should be uniform throughout 24 hours. It is advisable to eat a larger quantity for breakfast, for lunch and dinner to minimize the intake of this nutrient,
- key meals should be up to 30% of the daily calorie intake (each meal),
- special attention must be paid to complementary meals. The second breakfast, snack in the evening should be 10-15% of the norm per day (each meal).
As you know, gaining weight with the help of high-calorie foods is not difficult. However, this method of weight gain is not suitable for diabetics.
After all, the use of fat, various preservatives upsets the metabolism, and also reduces the production of insulin. Of the daily diet, fats should be 25%, carbohydrates - up to 60%, proteins - 15%. For elderly patients, the rate of fat is reduced to 45%.
Refusing liquid before meals
It is believed that before eating liquid can not be consumed. It really is. In particular, this restriction applies to diabetics.
This group of patients cannot aggravate the state of the gastrointestinal tract, since cold drinking before eating negatively affects the quality of digestion.
Causes of Sudden Weight Loss in Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is usually diagnosed in older people, and one of its main causes is excessive consumption of carbohydrates, including sugar, which in parallel leads to pronounced excess weight. In such cases, one of the foundations of antidiabetic therapy is the need to reduce the weight of the diabetic, which helps to level the load on the body (heart, blood vessels, bones and joints). But long-term studies of this disease revealed a certain percentage of situations with the reverse scenario, when a patient with diabetes begins to lose weight dramatically.
Often this clinical manifestation affects diabetics of middle or young age, leading a fairly active lifestyle, not associated with obesity and inactivity. The reason for losing kilograms in diabetes is not the problem of insulin production in the pancreas, but the impaired ability of tissue cells to absorb it while ensuring glucose transport from the bloodstream. A similar problem affects about 20% of all patients with type 2 diabetes, and modern medicine indicates the main risk factors for insulin resistance in non-pancreatic insufficiency:
- age about 40 years and older
- alcohol consumption,
- arterial hypertension
- chronic overeating.
The emergence of insulin resistance can occur in two scenarios: accelerated inactivation (destruction) of insulin or specific destruction of receptors that perceive insulin on the membranes of the corresponding cells in the tissues. The first process is based on the too rapid intake of the produced insulin in the liver, where it is destroyed. The second deviation occurs when antibodies perceive the insulin receptors in the membranes as antigens, and therefore tend to destroy them (this is an autoimmune pathology).
One way or another, a gradual decrease in body weight is due to the fact that body tissues do not receive enough glucose transported there by insulin. As a result, the body does not receive the only source of energy (excreted in the meantime with urine), which is why it begins to expend internal reserves of fat accumulations to maintain the necessary activity. This, accordingly, leads to a decrease in the fat layer to the minimum values, which manifests itself externally as weight loss.
Optimal weight - why is control important?
- People with type 1 diabetes should do this in order to prevent dehydration and the development of dystrophy. Complications arise because glucose entering the blood does not enter the cells, but is excreted in the urine, while the body is left without a source of energy. To make up for it, he begins to break down the glycogen of the liver and muscles and stored fats, while the person quickly loses weight.
- For those who have type 2 diabetes and being overweight, its return to normal contributes to the eradication of the disease (obesity is one of the factors in which tissues become insulin insensitive and diabetes develops), and also prevents the development of atherosclerosis, which causes myocardial infarction or a stroke.
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The danger of systematic weight loss lies primarily in the fact that it either is not regarded as a dangerous symptom, or even worse - it is perceived positively, in the context of modern ideas about human beauty. As a result, the negative dynamics of the process leads to a situation where the patient is faced with the consequences of weight loss - a number of clinical manifestations of a negative nature.
The mechanism of the breakdown of accumulated lipids in the absence of a sufficient amount of carbohydrate food is called ketosis, and often ketosis (ingestion of ketone bodies into the blood due to the breakdown of fats) is considered normal. Problems begin when the lack of glucose in the tissues exceeds the allowable threshold, which is why a number of organs, especially the brain, begin to experience carbohydrate hunger. The fact is that ketone bodies are not able to give them energy, so gluconeogenesis (not always effective) or an increase in the concentration of ketone bodies in the blood to switch all other organs and systems to an alternative energy source becomes the body's response.
The development of this process can lead to such a pathological phenomenon as ketoacidosis, diagnosed by a number of specific symptoms:
- hyperglycemia up to 15 mmol / l and higher,
- glucosuria up to 50 g / l and higher
If a diabetic is not helped at this stage, he will have a precomatous state: weakness, polyuria, drowsiness, loss of appetite, nausea, smell of acetone from the mouth. In such a situation, the patient requires immediate hospitalization, since a ketoacidotic coma is one of the most common causes of death in diabetes mellitus.
How to lose weight with diabetes?
- Remove foods that increase sugar from your diet. These include some types of cereals: millet, rice, pearl barley, as well as bread, potatoes, sweets, sugar, carrots, beets,
- Eat more eggs, seafood, vegetables, meat, herbs, legumes,
- Actively play sports. Running, walking, swimming, power loads with dumbbells and a bar are suitable. The same types of loads are suitable for people with the 1st and 2nd types of diabetes,
- Eat 5 or 6 times a day, make a serving of 200-300 ml,
- Drink more than 2 liters of liquid. In general, you need to drink water at the slightest appearance of thirst.
- Also, spicy, smoked, salty dishes, margarine and butter, pickled vegetables, pasta, sausage, mayonnaise, fatty dairy products, alcohol should be removed from the diet.
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How to gain weight in diabetes?
Advising diabetics how to recover, you must always take into account the specifics of their disease and related complications, otherwise the process can only do harm. Firstly, any diet therapy for weight gain should begin with the elimination or compensation of the causes that led to the pathological condition, otherwise all efforts will be in vain. We are talking, of course, about medical treatment, against which one can form a special diet for the patient.
A combination of proper treatment and proper nutrition should be supplemented by a set of physical activities commensurate with the state of health of the diabetic (you can’t just start eating a lot while maintaining a sedentary lifestyle).
Weight gain should be harmonious and gradual, because sudden fluctuations in body weight will be harmful to the body. The diet must be drawn up by the attending physician, which will take into account the current condition of the patient, the severity of his diabetes and the presence of possible complications. With the right approach, the weight will return to normal after one and a half months, but by that time it will be necessary to take care of the gradual decrease in the positive dynamics in favor of maintaining the achieved level so that the diabetic does not turn into an obese one.
Which products are better to choose?
Given the fact that the problem of hyperglycemia in diabetes does not disappear, trying to gain weight with sweets, pastries or muffins is the wrong way. In the same way, it will be wrong to transfer the patient to completely fatty foods, as this can aggravate existing problems with the gastrointestinal tract and the cardiovascular system. A sensible approach would be to start with a completely conservative diet: medium-carb cereals, dairy products of moderate fat content, lean fish and almost lean poultry.
Having set the right direction in this way and preparing the body, you can supplement the diet with veal and lamb, chicken eggs, nuts, mushrooms and durum wheat products. Be sure the diet should contain a sufficient amount of vegetables and fruits, because a weakened body needs to replenish its reserves of vitamins and minerals, strengthening immunity along the way.
Weight loss diet
Once you’ve figured out how to gain weight with type 2 diabetes, you can look at more specific examples of how a diabetic’s breakfast, lunch, and dinner can be composed.
Before gaining weight in type 2 diabetes, you should consult with an experienced specialist who will draw up a rough plan for building body weight and set an ultimate goal based on the patient’s age, height and gender.
Next, you can proceed to the compilation of the menu, which may look like this:
- breakfast: boiled egg, granola, tea without sugar,
- lunch: a glass of drinking yogurt or a couple of sweet and sour fruits,
- lunch: rice porridge, chicken breast or leg, fresh vegetable salad, compote,
- afternoon snack: a glass of kefir or ryazhenka, oatmeal cookies,
- dinner: vegetable stew with low-fat veal, a slice of rye bread, a glass of water,
- second dinner: some berries or fruits, yogurt.
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Among cereals, besides rice, buckwheat and pearl barley will also be effective and useful in weight gain. Mandatory weekly menu should include twice boiled or steamed fish of low-fat varieties, baked and stewed vegetables, cottage cheese and fat-free sour cream, legumes and pasta from durum wheat as a side dish. Do not forget that for lunch the patient should regularly be given first courses, for example, chicken broth soup, which perfectly saturates and gives the right amount of calories. As desserts, you can resort to the preparation of various fruit jellies, soufflés and mousses without the use of sugar, relying on the sweetness of the fruits and berries themselves (or sweeteners).
How to lose weight in diabetes?
To begin with, it is better to turn to an endocrinologist or nutritionist. The diet should be clearly and correctly scheduled. Meals should be taken at about the same time.
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If you want to normalize weight, then use foods with a low glycemic index:
- exclude from your diet fried, fatty, spicy, smoked, alcohol,
- use sweeteners instead of sugar,
- reduce your intake of fats and carbohydrates,
- eat fried, stewed or baked.
How does a diabetic gain weight?
Most often, people with diabetes of the first type suffer from a sharp decrease in weight, in which the insulin in the body ceases to be produced. The disease is considered incurable and therefore measures aimed at controlling your body weight are necessary to maintain normal blood glucose levels, which after eating should not exceed a value of 6.0 millimole / liter.
- Calculate calorie needs given body mass deficit,
- Normalize diet, eat 4-6 times a day in small portions,
- Keep track of the amount of fat / protein / carbohydrate entering the body. Their optimal ratio is 25% / 15% / 60%.
- Eat organic foods,
- Limit sweet and starchy foods.
- Porridge: buckwheat, pearl barley,
- Coffee and tea without sugar,
- Apples, pears, lemons, oranges, plums,
- Carrots, zucchini, onions, beets,
- Compotes, mineral water,
- Natural honey.
- Buns, muffins, pies and other pastries, except yeast-free,
- Chocolate, sweets, sugar, cakes,
- Fish and meat
- Pasta, convenience foods.
- Drinking alcohol and smoking cigarettes is highly undesirable.
Body weight control is one of the main tasks of all diabetics. It allows you to keep the glucose level normal, preventing the development of dangerous diseases, and sometimes even leads to a complete recovery. According to experts, sometimes people with type 2 diabetes need only lose weight and the disease recedes.
Do I need to gain weight at low weight?
Many diabetics, learning about the consequences of sudden weight loss, are trying to immediately return to their previous weight and even get fat.
But are such actions justified from a medical point of view?
Naturally, patients with diabetes should control their weight. It is important to remember that its deficiency leads to cachexia, kidney and liver diseases, decreased vision and the rapid progression of diabetic polyneuropathy.
On the other hand, you should not gain pounds very quickly, enriching your diet with carbohydrates. Such actions will only increase the level of glucose in the blood and exacerbate the course of diabetes, contributing to the rapid development of its complications.
Weight Loss Recommendations
Sharp weight loss in type 2 diabetes is very dangerous.
Among the most serious consequences are the development of ketoacidosis, atrophy of the muscles of the lower extremities and exhaustion of the body. To normalize body weight, doctors prescribe appetite stimulants, hormone therapy and proper nutrition.
It is a balanced diet that includes foods rich in vitamins, amino acids, micro and macro elements, will contribute to a gradual increase in weight and strengthen the body's defenses.
The main rule of good nutrition for diabetes is to limit the amount of carbohydrates and fatty foods. Patients only need to eat foods that have a low glycemic index.
A special diet includes the use of such food:
- wholemeal bread
- dairy products (non-fat),
- whole grain cereals (barley, buckwheat),
- vegetables (beans, lentils, cabbage, tomatoes, cucumbers, radishes, lettuce),
- unsweetened fruits (oranges, lemons, pomelo, figs, green apples).
The daily meal should be divided into 5-6 servings, and they should be small. In addition, with severe exhaustion of patients, it is recommended to take a little honey to restore immunity.
A diabetic should make the menu so that the proportion of fat in the total amount of food is up to 25%, carbon - 60%, and protein - about 15%. Pregnant women are advised to increase the proportion of proteins in their diet to 20%.
The carbohydrate load is evenly distributed throughout the day. The proportion of calories consumed during the main meal should range from 25 to 30%, and during snacks - from 10 to 15%.
Is it possible to cure such emaciation by eating only a diet? It is possible, but nutrition must be combined with exercise therapy for diabetes, this will have a faster and more effective result. Of course, when a patient tries to gain body weight, it is not worth it to exhaust yourself with overworking exercises.
But walking up to 30 minutes a day will only benefit. The constant movement of the body will help strengthen muscles, improve the respiratory and cardiovascular systems.
It should be remembered that a depleted organism "gets fat" for quite a long time. Therefore, you need to be patient and follow all the doctor's recommendations.
With diabetes, proper diet, which is based on moderate consumption of carbohydrate foods, will help to restore weight.
In this case, the patient should control his diet and pay attention to the glycemic index of food products, giving preference only to those in which it is low.
It is important to remember that the lower the GI, the less sugar this food will give to the blood. In addition, diabetic patients need to go on a high-calorie diet and eat foods that stimulate the production of insulin, including garlic, linseed oil, Brussels sprouts, honey and goat milk.
To recover, you should eat often and in small portions (up to 6 times a day). Carbohydrates need to be consumed in small quantities and evenly throughout the day.
The menu of diabetics is hardly diverse. But such a diet is necessary for them to maintain weight and shape, improve their general condition, and also prevent the development of complications of the disease.
To understand the reasons for the difficulty of losing weight in patients with diabetes, it is necessary to understand the relationship between blood sugar, insulin and diabetes itself.
Blood sugar levels depend on consumed carbohydrate-containing foods. Blood sugar levels increase in proportion to the rate of digestion of the food eaten: the more carbohydrates the food contains, the faster it breaks down in the gastrointestinal tract, the faster the sugar enters the blood.
In response to an increase in blood sugar, the body signals the pancreas to develop a certain amount of insulin and release it into the blood. When insulin enters the bloodstream, it binds sugar and delivers it to the cells of the body depending on needs: during physical exertion, sugar is delivered to muscle cells and the brain, providing them with energy, if the body does not need additional energy, sugar is delivered to fat cells (fat depot), where it is postponed.
Thus, if the body needs energy, sugar will be broken down by cells and spent on work, otherwise sugar will lead to an increase in body weight.
The problem of weight loss in diabetics is due to the fact that their blood sugar levels are increased almost constantly, because the body cannot regulate the balance of sugar due to lack of insulin. Thus, the flow of sugar from the blood into the body’s fat depot practically does not stop, which contributes to a constant increase in body weight.
Diabetes affects the weight of the patient. So, with an insulin-dependent form, in most cases, weight loss occurs, and with an insulin-independent form, fat accumulation.
If you want to get better, eat high-calorie foods high in healthy fats and carbohydrates. If your goal is to lose weight, then clearly control the amount of calories consumed, as well as fats and carbohydrates.
In any case, do not forget about prohibited products, including fatty, spicy, fried, smoked.
Proper nutrition is the key to the health of not only diabetics, but also of every person. Think about your body today, eating healthy foods, and he will thank you tomorrow, giving health and strength!