Diabetes mellitus requires constant monitoring, which consists in regular measurement of glucose indicators, taking sugar-lowering medications, dieting and moderate physical activity. But it happens that these measures are not enough and the results of the next analysis can show blood sugar of 32 units. This means that a dangerous condition called hyperglycemia is developing. How to normalize a person’s well-being, and what to do to prevent relapse?
Blood Sugar 32 - What Does It Mean
Hyperglycemia, in which glucose values in the bloodstream can reach 32.1-32.9 mmol / l, is conditionally divided into three forms:
- light - 6.7-8.3 units,
- average - 8.4-11 units,
- heavy - 11 and above units.
If the blood sugar exceeds 16.5 mmol / l, then the patient's condition is regarded as precocious. Long-term preservation of overestimated glucose values has a destructive effect on blood vessels, tissues and organs. As a result, the patient may fall into a coma and die.
Sugar levels of up to 32.2 units and higher can increase not only in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
Violation occurs when:
- pancreatic malignancies
- increased concentration of hydrocortisone in the blood,
- taking certain medications (diuretics, steroids, oral contraceptives, etc.),
- bearing a child
- a tendency to overeat and consume light carbohydrates,
- severe injuries and extensive burns,
- adrenal dysfunction,
- intense physical exertion,
- chronic and infectious diseases
- acute pain
- lack of vitamins C and B.
A dangerous syndrome occurs with Cushing's syndrome, severe liver and kidney pathologies, inflammation in the pancreas, thyrotoxicosis, stroke, and surgery.
Experts warn that with a too high glucose content in the body, a diabetic coma can develop. Usually, pathology occurs instantly, and in order to save the victim you need to know what to do and how to provide first aid.
What is there to be afraid of?
If in time to detect signs of hyperglycemia with glucose indicators of 32.3-32.8 units or more, then serious consequences can be avoided. The first pathological symptom indicating a critical condition is thirst. A person is constantly thirsty, while consuming up to 6 liters of fluid per day. Due to heavy drinking, the urge to urinate becomes more frequent.
Excess glucose in the body is intensely excreted by the kidneys along with urine. At the same time, the body loses useful elements, including salt ions.
As a result, dehydration occurs, which is fraught with:
- constant weakness, lethargy,
- dry mouth
- prolonged bouts of headache
- itching of the skin,
- weight loss
- chilliness, chills, coldness of the lower and upper limbs,
- numbness of the limbs
- visual impairment.
The digestive system reacts sensitively to such symptoms, responding to constipation or diarrheal syndrome, enhancing the dehydration process.
If ketone bodies accumulate during glycemia with a blood sugar of 32.4-32.5 units or more, then the body becomes intoxicated, which becomes the impetus for the development of diabetic ketoacidosis and ketonuria. Both of these conditions can cause a ketoacidotic coma.
What to do if sugar level is above 32
Diabetes mellitus is a fairly common disease that no one is safe from. That is why it is necessary to know what to do in case of an attack of acute hyperglycemia, and how to provide effective help.
In case of an attack:
- To neutralize the increased acidity of the stomach, acidic vegetables and fruits, alkaline mineral water without gas with sodium and calcium will help. It is strictly forbidden to offer water to the victim of chlorine. You can prepare a soda solution by dissolving in a glass of water 1-2 small tablespoons of soda. Drink should be drunk slowly, in small sips.
- Acetone will help to remove from the body gastric lavage with soda solution.
- Wiping the lost fluid will allow rubbing the face, neck, wrists with a damp towel.
- In case of insulin-dependent diabetes, the patient needs to measure the sugar level, and if the indicator is set above 14 mmol / l, for example, 32.6, then an injection of short insulin should be given and a plentiful drink should be provided. Measurements should be carried out every two hours, and injections until the condition returns to normal.
In the future, the patient must seek medical help in order to undergo a diagnostic examination and receive an individual doctor’s prescription.
High blood sugar levels are controlled by administering insulin. At the same time, treatment of the consequences caused by a critical condition is carried out: they fill up the lost volumes of fluid in the body, and the missing salts and useful elements are dripped. After compensating for diabetes, an examination is performed to find out the cause of the jump in glucose.
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If it is known that it rises due to diabetes, then a sugar-lowering therapy is prescribed, which the person will undergo for the rest of his life. The patient should be observed by an endocrinologist, visit narrow specialists every six months, measure the level of sugar at home with a glucometer, and monitor his diet.
With the second type of illness, sugar-lowering drugs are used, and with diabetes of the first type, insulin therapy is prescribed. The initial dose of insulin is determined by the doctor, later it is adjusted depending on the concentration of sugar. To prevent a relapse of hyperglycemia, the diabetic must learn to calculate the dosage of the drug on his own, count the number of bread units on his plate and correctly inject.
If the cause of the acute condition was not diabetes, but another disease, then the sugar level stabilizes after it is cured. Medications that reduce thyroid activity may be used. For example, with pancreatitis, a strict diet is prescribed, and in advanced cases, surgical treatment is performed.
Important! A blood glucose meter is a device that measures blood sugar. Every diabetic should have it in the medicine cabinet in order to control his condition and timely take the necessary measures to normalize indicators. How to use the meter
Acute hyperglycemia always negatively affects the body. Its effects are especially dangerous for people with diabetes. With the development of the pathological process, the work of all internal organs and systems comes under attack, due to which the patient's condition worsens greatly. Long-term hyperglycemia leads to impaired cerebral circulation, the development of heart failure, ischemia, myocardial infarction.
Complications of sugar of 32.7 units and above are as follows:
|Polyuria||It is characterized by increased excretion of urine from the body. Because of this, the electrolyte content in it is significantly reduced, which disrupts the water-salt metabolism|
|Renal glucosuria||A condition in which excess glucose in the blood enters the kidneys. In turn, glucose is excreted from the body by urine, in which sugar is detected during laboratory analysis. Normally, it should not be in the urine|
|Ketoacidosis||Refers to metabolic acidosis caused by a violation of carbohydrate metabolism due to lack of insulin. If the condition is not compensated in time, then a ketoacidotic coma develops|
|Ketonuria (acetonuria)||Accompanied by the presence in the urine of ketone bodies|
|Ketocidotic coma||It is characterized by generalized intoxication of the body with ketone bodies. It is accompanied by acute hepatic-renal and cardiovascular failure. The main signs: vomiting, pain in the abdomen, an increase in body temperature. Increasing symptoms lead to convulsions, respiratory arrest, loss of consciousness|
To prevent the development of unpleasant consequences and prevent a jump in glucose in the blood, diabetics should adhere to medical recommendations, do not forget to take medications on time, establish a diet, and prevent a passive lifestyle. If, following all these rules, the patient develops a hyperglycemic condition, he should consult with a specialist and adjust the prescribed therapy.
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Why does blood sugar rise to 32 units?
Such high values can be observed with malfunctions of the pancreas or other structures. Most often, the cause is associated with the development of endocrine disorders associated with the absorption of glucose. The disease manifests itself in a catastrophic insulin deficiency. This is a hormone that is produced by the largest gland in the body. She is responsible for the proper breakdown of glucose.
Sugar in 32 units. may appear when:
- Malignant degeneration of pancreatic cells,
- Elevated levels of hydrocortisone,
- Taking some medications.
Doctors say that when glucose is too high, this is a critical indicator. Diabetic coma can occur at lower values. This consequence usually does not develop instantly. Her precursors are headaches, weakness, a strong sense of thirst and discomfort in the abdominal cavity. The latter is accompanied by nausea or vomiting.
What to do when blood sugar rises to critical levels?
There are several rules that you must follow:
- Call an ambulance right away. This must be done when the first manifestations indicated above appear.
- In uncomplicated conditions, the patient is offered to eat a few pieces of sugar or cookies. With an insulin-dependent form, you must always have sweets.
- In severe cases (trembling, nervous excitement, excessive sweating), you need to pour warm tea into the patient's mouth. On a glass of liquid you need to add 3-4 tablespoons of sugar. This method is advisable if the patient has swallowed function.
- If you suspect a seizure, insert a latch between your teeth. This will avoid a sharp compression of the jaws.
- When a person feels better, feed him food with lots of carbohydrates. It can be fruits, various cereals.
- In case of loss of consciousness, glucose must be administered intravenously.
At the beginning of a coma, lay down the patient, put the air duct to prevent the tongue from dropping. If due to sugar in blood 32 you cannot understand whether a person is conscious, ask him a simple question. You can lightly hit the cheeks and rub the earlobes. In the absence of any reaction, the probability of an adverse outcome is high.
After the ambulance arrives
To eliminate violations of the electrolyte composition and restore water balance, droppers with:
- Potassium chloride. Up to 300 ml of a 4% solution is introduced.
- Sodium bicarbonate. Dosage is calculated individually.
- Sodium chloride. Up to 5 liters can be administered in 12 hours.
What to do with ketoacidosis?
As sugar levels rise to 32, diabetic ketoacidosis may appear. The body stops using glucose as an energy source, instead of it, fat is wasted. When cells disintegrate, wastes (ketones) are detected, which accumulate in the body and poison it. Most often, the pathology appears in people with type 1 diabetes.
A urinalysis will help to identify pathology. He will show a high level of ketones. With severe pathology with signs of diabetes, hospitalization of the patient is prescribed.
In addition to these drugs, a dose adjustment of insulin is performed. It can be administered up to 6 times a day. Infusion therapy using saline is also prescribed. The consequence of this ailment becomes hyperosmolar coma.
Hyperosmolar coma development
With this pathology, the amount of glucose increases to 32 and above. More likely to develop it in type 2 diabetics of the elderly. Such a coma develops for several days or weeks. It is important to pay attention to the first signs, which include frequent urination. Characteristic is the paralysis of certain groups of the muscular skeleton.
The patient is referred to the intensive care unit. In the process of treatment, continuous monitoring of the condition is carried out, which includes monitoring the indicators in the blood, body temperature and laboratory data.
If necessary, a person is connected to artificial ventilation of the lungs, bladder is catherized. When sugar is increased to 32 units, an express analysis of blood glucose is carried out once every 60 minutes with intravenous glucose or every three hours with subcutaneous administration.
For rehydration, sodium chloride and dextrose are introduced. Short-acting drugs are used to stabilize the condition. These include soluble insulin. It can be either semi-synthetic or human genetic engineering.
It is more often detected in patients with type 1 diabetes. It can develop in a few hours. If help is not provided in a timely manner, then intoxication of the brain with cations leads to heart attack, pneumonia, sepsis, or cerebral edema. The therapeutic effect includes, as in the previous case, rehydration, insulin therapy, restoration of electrolyte balance.
Rehydration eliminates possible complications. For this, physiological fluids are introduced in the form of glucose and a solution of sodium chloride. Glucose helps maintain blood osmolarity.
Restoring electrolyte balance and hemostasis are an important component of therapy. Using special injections, calcium deficiency and blood acidity are restored. That ensures the normal functioning of the kidneys.
Sometimes coma is accompanied by secondary infections. Broad-spectrum antibiotics help to cope with it. They are also introduced into the body to prevent complications. Symptomatic therapy is also important. To restore heart rate and eliminate the effects of shock, therapeutic measures are carried out.
Features of insulin therapy with sugar 32
Only exposure to hormones can stop the appearance of severe irreversible processes caused by their lack. Sometimes, to achieve the desired level of insulin in the biological fluid, a peptide hormone of nature is administered continuously through a dropper of 4-12 units. at one o'clock. Such a concentration leads to inhibition of the breakdown of fats, stops the production of glucose by the liver. At such dosages, we are talking about a "mode of small doses."
This method is almost always relevant, since the simultaneous administration of a large volume of biologically active substances can dramatically reduce serum glucose levels. As a result, deadly consequences can develop. It was noted that too sharp a decrease in glucose concentration may be accompanied by a drop in serum potassium concentration. This increases the risk of hypokalemia.
If, as a result of increasing sugar to 32, a DKA condition occurs, then short-acting insulins are used exclusively. All others are contraindicated for such a condition.
Human insulins show a good effect, but when a person is in a coma or predomatous state, the choice of the drug is made taking into account the duration of its action, and not the type.
Glycemia usually decreases at a rate of 4.2-5.6 mol / L. If during the first 360 minutes after the onset of such exposure has not decreased, the dose is increased to 14 mol / L. Speed and dosage depend on the condition of the patient.
When the level of vital signs is stabilized, and glycemia will be kept at no more than 11-12, the diet expands, insulin begins to be administered not intravenously, but subcutaneously. A short-acting drug is prescribed in fractions of 10-14 units. every 4 hours. Gradually, the transition to simple insulin in combination with the option of prolonged action.
If a person’s blood sugar has already risen to 32, then all measures must be taken to prevent the re-development of pathology. Special medical nutrition will help in this. In case of type 2 diabetes and obesity, a low-carb diet with artificial or natural inflammation must be followed by a deficiency of minerals and vitamins.
You must include in your diet meals that contain complex carbohydrates, fats, and protein. Optimally, if the food contains a low glycemic index.
You need to diversify your menu:
It is necessary to monitor the water balance. You need to drink up to 1.5 liters of water per day. When blood sugar reaches very high levels, the body begins to try to lower the level of sugar, removing it with urine. Ordinary water without additives will help to solve this problem, but it is also impossible to overdo it, since there is a chance of getting water intoxication.
In conclusion, we note: sugar in 32 units. indicates a malfunction in the body. If no action is taken, the possibility of death is great. Self-help is not recommended, as changes in health status may be missed. Therefore, first an ambulance is called, then all other actions are taken.